Basalioma - "solar" disease
Basal-cell cancer is a malignant tumor of the skin, which is more common in people with fair skin over the age of 40. Basalioma develops mainly on open parts of the body, more than 70% of tumors develop on the face. Favorite locations are the forehead, nose, corners of the eyes, temporal regions, and auricles. On the trunk and limbs, swelling occurs in 5-10% of cases.
Basalioma is slow growing, can grow into surrounding tissues, destroying them. Practically does not metastasize. Due to the slow growth and lack of metastases, some scientists consider basal cell carcinoma as a disease intermediate between malignant and benign tumors. However, it must be remembered that without treatment, basal cell carcinoma develops into a very real cancer.
The course of basal cell carcinoma
Superficial form is the most common type of cancer. One or more merging painless nodules slightly larger than a match head appear on the skin. The nodule rises above the surface of the skin, has a yellowish or dull white color and a dense texture.
Over time, the tumor grows in size and takes the form of a yellow or grayish-white plaque with a waxy hue, slightly rising above the skin. Its surface is smooth or rough. The edges protrude in the form of a dense ridge with an uneven outline.
Later, a depression appears in the center of the plaque, covered with a scale or crust. Removing the crust results in a drop of blood. With an increase in the size of the tumor, the retraction turns into an eroded surface, covered with a crust and surrounded by dense uneven edges in the form of a steeply protruding, as it were, a cut ridge. In this case, without treatment, the tumor grows deeper and deeper into the skin.
Basal cell carcinoma risk factors
Basal cell carcinoma is more likely to occur in outdoor workers - fishermen and outdoor agricultural workers.
The most serious factor contributing to the occurrence of skin cancer is prolonged exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays, although skin cancer can develop under the influence of radioactive radiation and prolonged thermal exposure. Occupational hazards that can cause skin cancer are contact with arsenic, resins, tar, soot.
Like other tumors, basal cell carcinoma usually develops against the background of previous diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosa, solar keratosis, Paget's disease, Bowen's disease, Keir's erythroplasia. Basalioma can also be caused by chronic dermatitis, long-term non-healing wounds and ulcers, chronic inflammatory processes in the skin.
The choice of a method for treating basal cell carcinoma depends on the location, form of growth, stage and structure of the tumor, as well as on the condition of the surrounding skin.
When the cancer is located on the head and especially on the face, it is necessary to take into account the cosmetic consequences of the treatment. In these cases, pharmacoimmune treatments (Aldara) are suitable.
Radiation therapy has become widespread in small tumors. A total dose of 50-70 Gray provides a significant percentage of good results. However, the method is practically ineffective in the case of neoplasms located in the corners of the eyes, on the nose, auricle and in areas near the cartilage. In addition, a serious disadvantage is radiation damage to healthy tissues (perichondritis, radiation ulcers), as well as a long (more than 1 month) duration of treatment.
Surgical treatment of basalioma and laser therapy of basalioma also give good results, if we are not talking about hard-to-reach areas of the body.
Tumor recurrence is an indication for surgical removal.